Shared Mystical Realities Between the Qur’an, New Testament,
and Hebrew Scriptures
The Sacred Texts of Islam, Christianity, and Judaism were inspired (in the case of the Bible) or given to us directly (in the case of the Qur’an) by our One God.
So when we discover mystical realities, mystical treasures, hidden in one area of the Scriptures, it should not be surprising when we find these same treasures and realities hidden in another area of the Scriptures.
We see this pattern of sharing already present at the literal level of the text. Every page of the New Testament is in dialogue with the Hebrew Scriptures. And every page of the Qur’an is in dialogue with both the New Testament and the Hebrew Scriptures.
This same dialogue continues on the mystical and more mysterious levels of these sacred texts.
For example, there are deep connections between the Book of Psalms and the Qur’an. The Qur’an specifically mentions the Psalms three times, referring to them as the Zabur of Dawood, the Psalms of David (see Surahs 4:163; 17:55; 21:105).
This essay has two parts. The first part will show how the individual Surahs of the Qur’an are in a parallel relationship of shared literary similarities with the Psalm of the same number. Surah 1 shares literary features with Psalm 1, Surah 2 with Psalm 2, and so on, all the way to Surah 114 and Psalm 114.
This is an astounding discovery, but there is much more. The Book of Psalms contains glorious mystical structures, which a forthcoming book shall take up. The second part of the essay will show how the Qur’an re-presents the Mystical Psalm Structures. The Qur’an takes up the Mystical Psalm Structures and celebrates them in multiple ways.
The Parallel Relationship Between Surahs and Psalms
Of the Same Number
This part of the essay will take three pairs of Surahs and Psalms, of the same title number, and show their deep connections.
Surah 1 and Psalm 1
An extremely clear and effective way to see the connections between the Qur’an’s Surahs and the Psalms is simply to compare Surah 1 and Psalm 1.
Surah 1 and Psalm 1 are both short and have many shared words and themes. Here are some of them:
-Both discuss the good path, and the unhelpful path.
-Both infer choices we are to make. Both guide us in making good choices.
-Both discuss the Day of Judgment.
-Both discuss negative types of behavior that are good to avoid.
-Both make interesting use of the word “and.”
And there is a more subtle, but powerful, connection:
-The Hebrew name of the Book of Psalms is Tehillim, which means, “The Praises”; and the second verse (Ayah) of Surah 1 of the Qur’an states “all praise is due to Allah”; meanwhile,
-The word “Qur’an” means “The Recitation,” and the verb in Psalm 1 that we humans are encouraged to practice, “higeh,” means to recite, murmur, repeat, ponder upon, and wrestle with.
-Therefore, the title of each Sacred Scripture, the “Qur’an” and the “Tehillim,” is mentioned, in translated form, in the first verses of the Other sacred text!
It is now abundantly clear that Surah 1 and Psalm 1 are connected with each other. Allah-God loves this sort of deep and meaningful wordplay and relationship between the sacred texts.
The Qur’an and the Psalms begin with each other, with a dialogue. (Psalm 1 overtly begins in this way, in that it mentions the Torah, twice, in its first verses. So the Book of Psalms begins by recommending itself, and all Scriptures, to inter-textuality and dialogue.) This is tremendously important.
As this dialogue continues, it grows more subtle.
By the time that we arrive at the final Surah of the Qur’an, Surah 114, the connections between each Surah and Psalms will be much more understated, though of great importance.
Surah 22 and Psalm 22
Psalm 22 is the great Psalm of the Crucifixion of Jesus. While the New Testament’s deep and complex discussion of Psalm 22 cannot be taken up here, these are some of the obvious appearances of Psalm 22 in the New Testament: Mt 27:46; Mk 15:34; Jn 19:23. Additionally, Luke 23:43 is reminiscent of the joyful conclusion of Psalm 22.
Also, when Jesus is mocked during the Crucifixion, there are more allusions to Psalm 22 at those places.
Surah 22 of the Qur’an has at least forty-five (45) allusions to Psalm 22. This is a conservative count, not including the very subtle connections between them. Here are a few demonstrations:
Ayah (verse) 1: “O people! Guard against (the punishment from) your Lord; surely, the violence of the hour is a grievous thing.” Jesus, in John’s Gospel, speaks of the “hour” that he will go through at his Passion and Crucifixion. Indeed, Psalm 22 highlights exactly the difficulties and the violence of this event, as does this first Ayah of Surah 22.
Surah 22’s next Ayah includes a discussion of every nursing woman and pregnant woman at this difficult time. Likewise, the Psalmist of Psalm 22 says: “For you (God) drew me forth from the belly, and made me secure on the breasts of my mother. Upon you I was cast from the womb, from the belly of my mother you have been my God.” (Psalm 22:10-11) Surah 22 is entitled The Pilgrimage (Hajj); we see in the transfer of the infant Psalmist, from the womb to God, a powerful echo of the theme of life, development, and pilgrimage of Surah 22. In Psalm 22, the Psalmist is undergoing a difficult passage of this pilgrimage, as difficult as the shock and outrage that the infant feels when being born/delivered from the womb.
Again, the suffering people in Ayah 22:2 are so stunned and bewildered by the punishment that they seem to be “intoxicated”; likewise, the ranting complaints of the Psalmist in Psalm 22 are similar in scope, because of the great pain. Ayah 2 concludes, “the chastisement of Allah will be severe.”
Just as Psalm 22 alludes to the actual process of delivery at birth, a few Ayat later, at 22:5, there is another mention of “wombs,” and Allah will “Bring you forth as babies, then that you may attain your maturity, and . . . (eventually) die.” This again is echoing the processes of birth, life, and death of Psalm 22. There is much more latent in just this one verse, Ayah 22:5; recall that at about the two-thirds mark of Psalm 22, there is a radical shift in perspective, and the Psalmist has been given insight, knowledge, and possibly a mystical experience—and the Psalmist spends the rest of the Psalm praising God in some of the most joyful verses of the Bible. Jesus, on the Cross, certainly recited this Psalm to its conclusion, celebrating the Resurrection that he had rock-solid faith in, even as he was dying in pain. Ayat 22:5 speaks of the Resurrection too, without mentioning Jesus by name. The end of this Ayah speaks of sterile land being transformed by rain; with the rain, the earth “stirs and swells and brings forth of every kind a beautiful herbage.” This too echoes the Resurrection experience at the end of Psalm 22.
In its own right, Psalm 22 concludes with “unborn generations” of new people who will attest to these things themselves, in joy.
Again reciting this praise of the true processes of reality, Ayah 22:6 declares, “This is because Allah is the Truth and because he gives life to the dead and because he has power over all things.”
Although Psalm 22 begins with bitter suffering, it ends with radical joy and praise, without mentioning actual “Resurrection.” However, for Christians and Muslims, the notion of the Resurrection is clearly present in the Psalm’s final verses. Psalm 23, following Psalm 22, is often read at funerals, because it too speaks powerfully of the processes of life, of our ongoing pilgrimage, and also speaks of the Resurrection without mentioning that term. After Ayah 22:6, Ayah 22:7 says, “Allah shall raise up those who are in the graves,” and Ayah 22:9 mentions “the day of Resurrection.”
Again, echoing the good things promised by the approaching Psalm 23, with its restorative waters and meadows and feasts, Ayah 22:14 promises, “Surely Allah will cause those who believe and do good deeds to enter gardens beneath which rivers flow…”
In fact, Surah 22 has glimpses of the future joyful harmony of Cordoba and Andalusia, when Muslims, Christians, and Jews lived in peace. Ayah 22:17 mentions “Jews” and “Christians.” Forecasting the shared worship spaces of Cordoba, Ayah 22:40 speaks of “cloisters and churches and synagogues and mosques in which Allah’s name is much remembered…”
Nor does this picture of harmony in civilization preclude the tough work of healing and repentance that all individual souls must undergo. We have discussed the exuberant “reversal” or “change” that occurs at the two-thirds point of Psalm 22. In a complex literary maneuver, Ayah 22.22 reverses this reversal! Sometimes the healing and purification go longer than one might choose (sic): “Whenever they desire to go forth from it, from grief, they shall be turned back into it, and taste the chastisement of burning.”
Following this verse, Ayah 23 of Surah 22 sounds like Psalm 23 again: “Surely Allah will make those who believe and do good deeds enter gardens beneath which rivers flow; they shall be adorned therein with bracelets of gold and (with) pearls, and their garments therein shall be of silk.” This ongoing transformation, this Hajj, this pilgrimage, changes our own speech and capacities of communication: “And they are guided to goodly words, and they are guided into the path of the Praised One.” (Ayah 22:24)
Ayah 22:35 mentions hearts that “tremble,” as Psalm 22 speaks of the fear/awe of the Lord.
Often Christian writers commenting, hiddenly, on the Mystical Psalm Structures use humor in discussing them; the humor becomes more clear and incisive once one has seen the hidden connection to the Psalms. Likewise, the Qur’an’s commentary on the Psalms often works with this same kind of hidden humor. Psalm 22 mentions that the Psalmist feels like a “worm.” Surah 22 transforms this into a way of speaking of the creative power of Allah, as the unbelievers’ false gods do not have the power to create a “fly.” (Ayah 22:73)
The humor itself has multiple purposes. For example, it shows the manifold ways in which Allah can transform suffering and shame into goodness and celebration. Additionally, this is a good model for spiritual leaders, who can often assist in times of healing and transition by the discerning deployment of humor.
Ayat 22:58, 59, 61, 63 and 66 all allude, in unique ways, to the transformation from the suffering of Psalm 22 to the gardens of Psalm 23.
Surah 23 and Psalm 23
The previous section discussed how Surah 22 and Psalm 22 address developments and processes, which are connected with pilgrimage and Hajj. These journeys of growth and transformation often have difficult episodes that lead to better states of being, higher orders of awareness.
Early in Surah 23 this entire developmental process is rehearsed in Ayah 14: “then we made the seed a clot, then we made the clot a lump of flesh, then we made (in) the lump of flesh bones, then we clothed the bones with flesh, then we caused it to grow into another creation, so blessed be Allah, the best of creators.” In addition to Psalm 22 and 23, this Ayah has connections to Ezekiel and Paul.
A single reading of Surah 23 reveals at least twenty-five clear echoes from, and allusions to, Psalm 23, the famous shepherd psalm. Ayah 23:1 says, “Successful indeed are the believers.” This is an obvious parallel to the sense of “arrival” or “success” that is found in parts of Psalm 23. Ayah 23:2 continues examining the process of those “Who are humble in their prayers,” showing that the “successful” nature of the first Ayah is attributable entirely to Allah-God. And the term “prayers” reminds us of “psalms.”
Part of Psalm 23 is the re-appropriation, or actual first appropriation, of the Garden, of the fullness of Creation. Ayah 12 reminds us of this: “And certainly we created humanity out of an extract of clay.” The next Ayah discusses “resting place,” which also reminds us of Psalm 23.
Ayah 23:19 brings us deeper into this garden paradise: “Then we cause to grow thereby gardens of palm trees and grapes for you; you have in them many fruits and from them do you eat.” Although we cannot delve into it here, the next verse moves from palm tree to olive tree in what is perhaps a ‘softening’ or intentionally ‘gentle’ interpretation of the Torah: “And a tree that grows out of Mount Sinai which produces oil and a condiment for those who eat.” (Ayah 23:20) We also see in this Ayah the olive oil and the banquet of Psalm 23. The feast continues in Ayat 23:33 and 23:51.
The overflowing cup of Psalm 23 becomes an overflowing valley in Ayah 23:27. The “valley,” of course, is another feature of Psalm 23. (Valleys that have suffered also become joyfully watered in Psalm 84, as a result of pilgrimage.)
The “paths of righteousness” of Psalm 23 are mentioned in Ayah 23:49, which has another allusion to the Torah: “And certainly we gave Musa (Moses) the Book that they may follow a right direction.”
Immediately following this, Ayah 23:50 sweetly brings Mary and Jesus into the paradise of Psalm 23: “And we made the son of Marium and his mother a sign, and we gave them a shelter on a lofty ground having meadows and springs.”
The Mystical Psalm Structures in the Qur’an
Let’s switch gears radically. We have discussed three individual pairs of Surahs and Psalms that obviously are connected with each other. (There are 114 Surahs in the Qur’an, so we have only begun exploring this vast topic.)
These are profound and very important discoveries, important for all human beings on the planet Earth. This shows that Allah-God wants peace between religions, not fundamentalism, literalism, or war.
Allah-God likes thoughtful, thinking people who develop skills in interpretation and communication. Making things work beautifully.
As stunning as this discovery is, there is so much more.
For example, there are Mystical Structures hidden in the Book of Psalms, discussed in this essay:
These Mystical Psalm Structures and alluded to in almost every book of the New Testament, and in the writings of at least 20 Christian saints. (All these New Testament/Christian allusions to the Mystical Psalm Structures are subtle and intentionally hidden—probably Allah-God told the authors not to make these revelations overt yet.)
Like the New Testament, the Qur’an is in continual dialogue with the Mystical Psalm Structures.
This essay only has space to discuss one Mystical Psalm Structure: The Mystical Psalms Ladder, which is discussed in the linked essay above. The twenty-five Psalms whose title numbers are the multiples of 6 form the Mystical Psalms Ladder. In a similar way, the Qur’an’s Surahs whose title numbers are multiples of 6 are celebrating the Mystical Psalms Ladder as well, and form their own Quranic Ladder; the Qur’an’s discussion of the Mystical Psalms Ladder is much less hidden than it is in the New Testament, although it never quite becomes overt.
The Psalms have a hidden mathematical formula that generates the flight of angels on the Ladder. The Qur’an is overflowing with angels, ladders, and angels flying vertically, up and down, between heaven and earth.
The second part of this essay shall present Surahs 6, 78, and 114, and their connections to the Mystical Psalms Ladder. Surahs 6 and 114 are the first and last Surahs that form the Ladder in the Qur’an, parallel to the Psalms Ladder.
Psalm 6 is at the foot of the Psalms Ladder, planted on the earth, and contains the word sheol, which can be roughly translated as “hell.” It is full of suffering, specifically, bodily illness and pain. Ayah 6:6 echoes the pain of Psalm 6, adding to it the possibility that it is related to sinfulness; however, the Ayah concludes by recounting how Allah has “raised up after them another generation,” a sign of hope.
Ayat 6:15 and 17 discuss this as well, with Ayah 6:17 stating that Allah can heal a person and show them mercy within the course of their lifetime. Ayat 6:25-27, and 6:124, likewise echo these aspects of Psalm 6; Ayah 6:71 is poignant in this regard.
A note regarding the Psalms in general: They form an opposite direction of movement to that of the Torah (see Psalm 1). The Torah is the word of God come DOWN par excellence. God handed it down to Moses atop Mt Sinai, Moses came down, gave it down to the people, and it’s been handed down to each generation since. The Psalms reverse this movement, speaking UP to God. As Psalm 12:7 depicts, human words can become Scripture, with God’s own purification. This is what happened in the formation of the Psalms. In fact, the last 3 verses of Psalm 6 form what I call the “Reverse Shema,” claiming that God has heard their prayers, and will act to accomplish these requests of the Psalmist. Ayah 6:3 alludes to this Reverse Shema: “Allah in the heavens and in the earth knows . . . your open words.”
So the Torah came down, and the Psalms go up. Here is the basic trajectory of the Ladder, which will be creatively reproduced in the Qur’an. Let’s turn to the Ladder references in Surah 6:
-Ayah 6:35 alludes to the Mystical Ladder of the Psalms:
“And if their turning away is hard on you, then if you can seek an opening (to go down) into the earth or a ladder (to ascend up) to heaven so that you should bring them a sign and if Allah had pleased He would certainly have gathered them all on guidance, therefore be not of the ignorant.” (emphasis added)
-6:8, 37, 44, 50, 84, 99, 111, 143, and 158 are all Ayat in Surah 6 that refer to the Mystical Psalms Ladder. Ayat 6:8, 6:37, and 6:158 each have multiple occurrences of angels or signs descending to earth. Other Ayat of this Surah mention angels, birds, and wings. Surah 6 is overflowing with Ladder allusions, as is the Qur’an itself.
-Psalm 84 is the central part of the Mystical Psalms Ladder. Ayah 6:84 mentions Dawood and Sulaiman (David and Solomon), who are so important to the Bible’s Psalms and Wisdom Literature. Psalm 84 contains the word jedidot, “beloved,” which is cognate with David’s name. It is also cognate with “Jedidiah,” which is the special name God assigned to Solomon at his birth.
Surah 78 and Psalm 78
Psalms 78 and 84 form a central step of the Mystical Psalms Ladder. Psalm 78 speaks of the doors of heaven being opened, and food raining down upon the Israelites in the desert. Recall that Jacob, in Genesis 28, called the Ladder that he had seen in the vision the “gateway of heaven.”
Similar to Psalm 78, there is an opening of heaven in Surah 78: “And the heaven shall be opened so that it shall be all openings.” (Ayah 78:19) There are many other verses in the Qur’an that speak of heavenly doors being opened and good things being bestowed upon humanity.
Ayah 78:34 speaks of a “pure cup”; the chalice or cup is another symbol of the Ladder. Four verses later, Ayah 78 states that “the Spirit and the angels shall stand in ranks.” Like the angels spoken of here, the angels’ Ladder has 12 steps (in the Psalms) or 9 steps (in the Qur’an).
Other Major References to the Mystical Psalms Ladder in the Qur’an:
-Ayah 4:153 says, “The followers of the Book ask you to bring down to them a book from heaven.” Ten verses later, at Ayah 4:163, is the Qur’an’s first mention of the Zabur of Dawood.
-Angels flying up and down, and treasures being sent down to earth, are spoken of in many Ayat of the Qur’an, too many to mention here.
-Ayah 7:40 speaks of the “doors of heaven.” Again, Jacob says that the Ladder is the gateway of heaven.
-Ayah 15:14 says, “Even if we open to them a gateway of heaven, so that they ascend into it all the while.”
-Ayah 17:1 discusses the Mi’raj, when the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) ascended through 7 heavens, from the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. This motion of vertical ascent and descent is the same as that employed when climbing the Mystical Psalms Ladder.
-Ayah 52:38 mentions a ladder by which people may listen to heavenly conversation. (Some translations do not have the word “ladder” here, but it is present in the Arabic.)
-Surah 70 is entitled “The Ways of Ascent (Ma’arij),” which is cognate with the word “Mi’raj,” discussed above.
-In this Surah, Ayah 4 says, “To him ascend the angels and the Spirit . . .”
-Ayah 43:33 speaks of “silver roofs of their houses and the stairs by which they ascend…” This is another reference to the ladder/stairway.
-Ayah 57:27 may be speaking of the Christian monks who had knowledge of these mystical realities. Additionally, if the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was friends with St. John Climacus at St. Catherine’s Monastery at Mount Sinai, as has been conjectured based on the Ashtiname, then the Prophet and Climacus (whose name means “Ladder” and who knew of these mystical realities) could have discussed these entities together.
Here is a rough working-list of references to the Mystical Psalms Ladder found in the Qur’an: https://www.academia.edu/32710012/Ladder_and_Angel_references_in_the_Quran
Surah 114 and Psalm 114
Here is a picture of the Mystical Ladder of the Qur’an, which echoes the Mystical Psalms Ladder. We cannot in this essay discuss the many connections between these 19 Surahs, although the tendrils of connection are plentiful:
Surah 114 and Psalm 150 conclude their respective books. Both numbers, 114 and 150, are multiples of 6 (but not multiples of 12). This fact allows both finishing literary units to be placed atop the Mystical Ladder formed by the literary units whose numbers are multiples of 6. There is less than a one percent (1%) chance that this would occur.
As Surah 1 and Psalm 1 are connected with each other, so are Surah 114 and Psalm 114 connected with each other—but in a very different set of ways.
The connections of Surah 1 and Psalm 1 are clear to see in their shared vocabulary. And it establishes a precedent, as it happens in the first unit of both Scriptures.
Yet with Surah 114 and Psalm 114, there are not many shared words. Instead, there is a connection of call-and-answer, and a progression, and an exquisite dance between the two texts.
Psalm 114 is dramatic, and the scene of action is very exterior. It happens in the wilderness, by the Red Sea and by the desert mountains and by the Jordan River. The Psalm celebrates the Exodus.
In response to the Exodus, nature herself 1) dances like young sheep and rams in the springtime, and 2) is amazed at the sight of the Exodus. Mountains jump up and down. The Red Sea and the Jordan River are severed, their currents reversed.
Why do the land and the water, these two elements, act strangely?
It is because of the new connection between God/ Allah and people, human beings. This connection of the people and God is the birth of the Hebrew people, as they pass through the Red Sea. This passing through the Red Sea is a birth. Broken water. Red. A birth. A new connection between God and Humanity is the birth of a new Humanity. Mother Earth, and her waters, sense this and respond appropriately with the throes of birth.
Surah 114 was given to us perhaps a millennium after Psalm 114, after much human evolution had occurred in the light of earlier Scriptures.
Its title is “Humanity”:
1) Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of humans,
2) The King of humans,
3) The God of humans,
4) From the evil of the whisperings of the slinking (Shaitan/Satan),
5) Who whispers into the hearts of humans,
6) From among the jinn and humans.
This utterly profound Surah is a sign of tremendous human evolution.
Whereas Psalm 114 had nature terrified and leaping before God’s theophany, and long external human journeys, Surah 114 speaks volumes of an immense internal awareness within the Human Person.
Surah 114 asks us to repeat its words, and to make these words our words. (The Psalms do this too.) When we say these words in ourselves, our interior selves become more holy, aware, and evolved. When we say these words in ourselves, we become more aware of the internal geography of our own soul.
And what we see is awesome.
Our relationship with Allah has become so full that it must be described, initially, with three statements of who God is for us: Allah is “the Lord of humans, the King of humans, [and] the God of humans.”
We have grown to the point where we have to think of our relationship with Allah in multiple ways. Indeed, our thinking has become more complex.
With that, there is greater responsibility that we must exercise over our thinking. We must take greater care for our mental life, our mental activity.
As more complex and evolved human beings, we are potentially vulnerable to sneaky whispers from the slinking/ withdrawing Satan. With our more developed mental antennae, we can pick up smaller “transmissions” from Satan. Satan attacks our hearts, the place of love. Satan wants to divide us, and to separate us from each other. The more we humans evolve, the more we transform into people of love. If Satan is able to stop our loving each other, than he can stop our growth, our evolution.
Love opens us up to evolutionary growth in more spectrums of reality. But we must show discernment as we enter an awareness of these realms: We are now aware of whispers that come to us from both “jinn” and “men.” This positive growth is leading us to be intelligent as we become aware that we are receiving communications from a wider spectrum of reality.
We must carefully observe and govern our expanding mental life. This is how the Qur’an concludes.
Psalm 114 showed the Israelites being led by the hand on a big journey in wild places. Mountains leapt, seas parted. The Israelites oscillated greatly, often wanting to return to the fleshpots that they knew. They radically bounced between fear and anger/pride.
By way of contrast, the final Surah of the Qur’an is teaching us about our evolving life of mind and soul.
See the progression?
We might, however, find seeds, kernels, of this tremendous growth hiding, latent, in Psalm 114. This Psalm ends with a verse about God, “Who turns the rock into a pond of water, the flint into a flowing fountain of water.” Initially, this might seem like simple powerful external imagery of God’s awesome power, with which he has been awing the Israelites and teaching them introductory lessons about their lives, their selves, and their relationship with God.
Yet we might also recall Ezekiel’s discussion of rocky hearts, and the Pharaoh’s hardened heart, and we might discern the beginning hints of something different. The Exodus journey, led by God, is softening the hearts of the Israelites, and transforming their hearts into hearts of love. During the Exodus, for example, the Israelites had to become better at community. Part of this is their growing ability to make better choices; To discern, and to make calm, just judgments.
The parallel relationship with the Qur’an helps us to draw out this truth from the Psalms of the Hebrew Scriptures! Likewise, the dramatic exterior action of Psalm 114 helps us to better see and to be awed by the huge quiet interior developments that are now happening in Humanity in Surah 114! Our Scriptures walk forward, hand in hand.
There is more: Now that the dialogue between Psalm and Surah has developed our sense of the dimension, the spectrum, of time, and of evolution, and of our receiving God’s own powers and gifts—what if Surah 114 is reminding us that if our evolution continues, we shall be given tremendous powers by God, the ability to move mountains and to dialogue deeply with nature?
Again, this Surah discusses choices instrumental to our human evolution.
And this Surah discusses cosmic forces that arrive to us, forces that are calmly mixed, or rudely interjected, into our thoughts. These visiting thoughts may be for good or for ill. The growing human person must learn to read these thoughts, and to discern from whence they arrive. The growing human person must learn discernment.
The simple act of the decision, of spiritual/ mental volition, occurring in the quiet privacy of our own mind, is revealed to be more powerful and far more advanced than the leaping up and down of mountains, as wonderful as that might be.
Surah 114 is evolutionary, and very aware of our human need to grasp the cosmic ramifications of each and every one of our decisions.
They go together. If we make good decisions, and become a loving unified humanity, then the cosmos has no limits for us; in fact, the cosmos will lovingly respond to a humanity that has grown in love.
Our Scriptures, united in dialogue, help us on this journey.